Nuclear Power Plants Elsewhere
Aktau (BN-350)
Location: Kazakhstan
Operator: Kazatomprom
Configuration: 1 X 135 MW FBR
Operation: 1973 (ret)
Reactor supplier: Atomenergoproekt
T/G supplier: Kharkov
EPC: Atomenergoproekt, ZIO Podoloski
Quick facts: This was Kazakhstan's only nuclear power plant, a loop-type, liquid-sodium fast breeder reactor of the BN-350 design located on the Caspian Sea. Of the 350 MWt output, 200 MWt were used for desalination and the balance for power production. Aktau is one of the few fast breeders to ever operate for extended periods. Construction began in 1964 and the facility was retired in Apr 1999 after gradually running out of fuel.

Photograph courtesy of MAEK-Kazatomprom LLP
Re-posted 10 Jun 2009

Angra
Location: Brazil
Operator: Eletronuclear
Configuration: 1 X 657 MW, 1 X 1,350 MW PWR
Operation: 1984-2001
Reactor supplier: WH, Siemens
T/G supplier: WH, Siemens
EPC: Gibbs & Hill, WH, Siemens, Nuclebras Engenaria, Andrade Gutierrez
Quick facts: Brazil’s sole commercial nuclear power plant, is located at Itaorna Beach about 160km west of Rio de Janeiro. Angra-2 and a sister unit were part of a nuclear cooperation program signed in 1975 between Brazil and Germany that was originally planned to result in 10 reactors and a complete nuclear fuel cycle. Construction on Angra-2 started in 1976 with initial operation scheduled for 1983, but construction was at a virtual standstill between 1989 and 1996. Criticality was attained in Jul 2000 and the plant was handed over in late Dec. Angra-2 and common facilities cost on the order of $7bn. Construction was started on Angra-3, but was delayed several times. It is now expected online around 2019.

Photograph courtesy of Siemens AG
Posted 26 Apr 2001

Atucha
Location: Argentina
Operator: Nucleoelectrica Argentina SA
Configuration: 1 X 370 MW, 1 X 745 MW PHWR
Operation: 1974-2014
Reactor supplier: Siemens
T/G supplier: Siemens
EPC: Siemens
Quick facts: The Atuca site is on the right bank of the Rio Parana in the town of Lima, Partido de Zárate, 115km from Buenos Aires. Atucha-II  is a scale-up of the first unit. The foundation stone was laid in 1982, but work was stopped from 1994 to 2006. Criticality was on 3 Jun 2014, the unit was synchonized on 27 Jun, and declred commercial on 19 Feb 2015 by President Cristina Fernandez de Kirchner. The unit was re-named Presidente Dr Nestor Carlos Kirchner. Photo is from May 2010.

Photograph courtesy of Nucleoelectrica Argentina SA
Re-posted 12 Feb 2011

Barakah
Location: United Arab Emirates
Operator: Emirates Nuclear Energy Corp
Configuration: 4 X 1,400-MW PWR
Operation: 2017-2020
Reactor supplier: Doosan
T/G supplier: Doosan
EPC: Korea Hydro & Nuclear Power, KEPCO E&C
Quick facts: In Dec 2009, KEPCO signed a contract for the UAE, the Middle East’s first NPP. In Jul 2012, the Federal Authority for Nuclear Regulation (FANR) and the Environment Agency Abu Dhabi gave final approval for the ENEC site at Barakah in the Western Region of the Emirate of Abu Dhabi, 53km west-southwest of Ruwais.The UAE ws the first new country to authorize NPP construction since China in 1981. The design reference plant is the 4,000-MWt, 1,390-MW Shin Kori 3&4 in South Korea. At the time of the photo, Unit-1 was said to be 55% complete. and on schedule for servicein 2017. The total budget for all four units is said to be $20bn.

Photograph courtesy of Emirates Nuclear Energy Corp
Posted 30 Aug 2014

Bataan PNPP
Location: Philippines
Operator: National Power Corp
Configuration: 1 X 623 MW PWR
Operation: n/a
Reactor supplier: WH
T/G supplier: WH
EPC: Burns & Roe, WH
Quick facts: The Philippine NPP was the largest power generation project ever undertaken in the Philippines. The 389ha site is on Napot Point on the Bataan Peninsula, 100km west of Manila. PNPP was originally configured as two 600-MW units and preliminary bids were received in 1974 from GE and Westinghouse, the former saying that they could build the plant for $700mn and the latter quoting $500mn. The contract was signed in Feb 1976 between NPC and Westinghouse, although the price for the two units had risen to $1.2bn in the interim. By Sep 1975, the project was down-sized to one unit, but the price for the single reactor was then $1.1bn. In 1976, the U.S. Export-Import Bank made a $277.2mn loan for the plant, its largest-ever to that date, The Eximbank later made two more loans totaling $308mn and guaranteed a further $367.2mn. Construction started in 1977, but in 1979, the TMI accident forced President Marcos to create the Puno Commission to evaluate plant safety. The Commission eventually concluded that the plant site was seismically problematic and although the 620-MW plant was essentially completed in 1982 and deemed ready to operate in 1985, it was never started-up. The government of Corazon Aquino formally banned nuclear power in the Philippines and the unit was mothballed in 1987. The final cost was about $2.3bn, of which the Eximbank estimated its project exposure to be on the order of $900mn. The facility is being fuly preserved.

Photograph courtesy of National Power Corp
Re-posted 28 Feb 2015

BONUS
Location: Puerto Rico
Operator: Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority
Configuration: 1 X 18 MW BWR
Operation: 1964-1968
Reactor supplier: General Nuclear Engineering Corp
T/G supplier: GE
Quick facts: The Boiling Nuclear Superheater (BONUS) reactor was built by the US AEC and PREPA as prototype designed to establish the technical and economic feasibility of the integral boiling-superheating concept. In this system, saturated steam produced in the central portion of the reactor core is superheated in four surrounding "superheater" sections and then used to drive a turbine generator. It was one of only two such reactors ever developed in the United States. PREPA decommissioned the reactor in 1969/70 and the site was released for unrestricted use in 2003. It is now hosts a power and electricity technology museum.

Photograph courtesy Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority
Re-posted 16 Jun 2007

Bushehr
Location: Iran
Operator: Atomic Energy Organization of Iran
Configuration: 1 X 1,000 MW PWR
Operation: 2013
Reactor supplier: Atomstroyexport
T/G supplier: LMZ, Electrosila
EPC: Atomstroyexport
Quick facts: Iran ordered a pair of 1,300-MW PWRs modeled on Biblis-A from Siemens. Construction started in 1974 but stopped after a fire in 1982 and the site was subsequently attacked by Iraqi aircraft in 1985 and 1986. In 1991, the Germans definitively dropped the project. By this time, Russian experts were investigating the possibility of putting in a pair of 1,000-MW Russian reactors in place of the German equipment. Intergovernmental agreements in Aug 1992 formed the basis for subsequent cooperation between Iran and Russia in the civil use of nuclear energy. In Jan 1995, Minatom agreed to an initial $800mn contract to build twin VVER-1000 reactors with Balakovo-4 as the reference unit. The actual turnkey construction agreement was not finalized until mid-1998 and in 1999, a Russian-Iranian team was formed to build the first unit. The original contract specified completion of Unit -1 in Mar 2004, but in Jun 2003, Minatom officials said that Unit-1 would not be completed until 2005 and the schedule slipped many times thereafter. The unit was finally connected in Sep 2011 and turned over on 23 Sep 2013.

Photograph courtesy of JSC Atomstroyexport
Re-posted 4 Apr 2017

Embalse
Location: Argentina
Operator: Nucleoelectrica Argentina SA
Configuration: 1 X 600 MW CANDU
Operation: 1984
Reactor supplier: AECL
T/G supplier: Ansaldo
EPC: Canatom, AECL, Acres
Quick facts: The project included a heavy-water upgrading facility.

Photograph courtesy of Nucleoelectrica Argentina SA
Posted 15 Mar 2004

Juragua
Location: Cuba
Operator: Union Electrica (UNE)
Configuration: 2 X 440 MW PWR
Operation: n/a (construction terminated)
Reactor supplier: Atomstroyexport
T/G supplier: Kharkov, Electrosila
EPC: Atomstroyexport
Quick facts: The Juragua project was originally sited on the Rio Arimao about 13km east-southeast of Cienfuegos city but was relocated across Cienfuegos Bay. Construction started in Jan 1983, proceeded in fits and starts, slowed in Jan 1991 when the Soviet Union collapsed, and finally stopped in Sep 1992 due to lack of money, export credits, and advisers from Russia and Ukraine. Unit-1 was said to be about 80% complete. Due to allegations of shoddy construction and the plant’s proximity to the U.S., the project was intensely controversial. In 1995, it was reported that Cuban authorities were finishing up a feasibility study to complete the units and in Feb 1997, it was reported that Minatom was prepared to continue construction. In May 1999, there were reports of a possible joint venture to complete the plant but, in Dec 2000, the authorities finally abandoned the project.

Photograph by David Grant (wikimedia)
Posted 8 Aug 2008

Koeberg
Location: South Africa
Operator: Eskom
Configuration: 2 X 965 MW PWR
Operation: 1984-1985
Reactor supplier: Framatome
T/G supplier: Alstom
EPC: Framatome, Spie-Batignolles
Quick facts: This is the only nuclear power plant in Africa. Unit-2 ended a plant-record run of 424 days when it shut down for a scheduled refuleing on 24 Mar 2014.

Photograph courtesy of Eskom
Re-posted 25 Jul 2007

Krsko
Location: Slovenia
Operator: Nuklearna Elektrarna Krsko
Configuration: 1 X 727 MW PWR
Operation: 1981
Reactor supplier: WH
T/G supplier: WH, MH
EPC: Hidroelektra Niskogradnja
Quick facts: Krsko was jointly developed by the governments of Croatia and Slovenia at a site east of Ljubliana. In Apr 2006, the original Westinghouse LP turbine was replaced with a 54in blade, low-pressure turbine monoblock rotor from MHI. The actual installation took only 27 days and among other things resulted in a 4.5% increase in output.

Photograph courtesy of SWAN Analytische Instrumente AG
Re-posted 2 Dec 2009

Laguna Verde
Location: Mexico
Operator: Comision Federal de Electricidade
Configuration: 2 X 820 MW BWR
Operation: 1990-1995
Reactor supplier: General Electric
T/G supplier: Alstom
EPC: Ebasco
Quick facts: In Feb 2007, Iberdrola Ingeniería was awarded a $605mn contract to modernize Laguna Verde. Alstom Mexicana was a subcontractor. The project was completed in Feb 2011. The work scope included two new Alstom steam turbines to replace the existing MHI machines and two new generators to replace the Melco equipment. This resulted in a 20% uprate.

Photograph courtesy of Comision Federal de Electricidad
Posted 7 Sep 2001

 
Medzamor
Location: Armenia
Operator: Armenian Nuclear Power Plant CJSC
Configuration: 2 X 408 MW PWR
Operation: 1977-1980
Reactor supplier: Atomstroyexport
T/G supplier: Kharkov, Electrosila
EPC: Atomstroyexport
Quick facts: The Armenian NPP has two VVER-440/270 reactors. For safety reasons, the USSR Ministers Council decided to close the plant and Units 1 and 2 were shut down on 25 Feb 1989 and 18 Mar 1989, respectively. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, Armenia’s energy situation worsened and in Apr 1993, the Armenian government decided to re-start Unit-2. After reviews of recommendations from a variety of international organizations and contractors including IAEA, WANO, Framatome, Bechtel, and Rosenergoatom, a restart program was developed. On 5 Nov 1995, Unit-2 came back online. The plant has been run by INTER RAO since 2003.

Photograph by Strocles (wikipedia)
Re-posted 9 Apr 2014

Ostrovetsk
Location: Belarus
Operator: RUE Belarusian NPP
Configuration: 2 X 1,200 MW PWR
Operation: 2019-2020
Reactor supplier: OMZ - Obediennye Mashinostroitelnye Zavody
T/G supplier: Power Machines Group
EPC: Nizhny Novgorod Engineering Atomenergoproekt, Belnipienergoprom
Quick facts: In Jun 2009, the GOB announced that Atomstroyexport would be the general contractor for the first Belarusian NPP, two AES-2006 reactors. An intergovernmental agreement for the Ostrovetsk NPP was signed in Mar 2011 and the general construction contract in Jul 2012. T/G sets were ordered in Jan 2013 for over $750mn. In No 2011, it was announced that Russia would lend up to $10bn for 25yrs to finance 90% of the contract between Atomstroyexport and the GOB. In Feb 2012, Vnesheconombank and Belvnesheconombank signed papers to implement the Russian export credit facility. In Jan 2014, the former NPP construction directorate became a new company RUE Belarusian NPP. First concrete for Unit-1 was in Nov 2013 and, in Feb 2014, Unit-2 was licensed for construction. As of late 2015, the official project cost estimate was $9.4bn.

Photograph courtesy of eng.belta.by
Posted 17 Feb 2016

Abbreviations

Data: industcards, Platts UDI World Electric Power Plants Data Base

Updated 04-Apr-2017

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